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Patenting in Electricals

PFC has conducted a study of patent applications related to the electrical engineering filed in India in the last five years from 1997 to 2001. The data for the  patent analysis has been extracted from the Ekaswa –A patent database of PFC. A total of 2202 patent applications have been studied. These applications include patent applications filed in India, the PCT applications which have come into National Phase in which India is one of the designated countries and the PCT applications filed in India itself. The main areas in which most of the applications have been filed include batteries, transformers, transmission, insulation mechanisms, protection devices, generators, motors, rotors, connectors of different types, relays and electrical gadgets. 21.4% of total applications have been filed by Indian companies and individuals and 60% of these applications have been filed by individuals alone.

The year-wise break up of applications from 1997-2001 is given in Table – I.

Table I

Year     1997 1998   1999     2000  2001
No. of Applications       683 538 303   340 338

 Some of the other highlights of the analysis are presented below for quick review.

1) Total No. of applications filed 2202
2) Applications filed by foreigners/foreign companies 1729
3) Applications filed by Indian companies/ individuals 473
4) Applications filed by Indian individuals 288
5) Convention applications filed 1208
6) PCT applications in National Phase 297
7) PCT applications filed in India 12

A list below in Table II  shows the number of convention applications from various countries.

Table II


No. of Applications

USA 353
Germany 246
Japan 236
France 99
Austalia 98
UK 65
Korea 59
Sweden 56
Italy 21
EPO 15
Austria 11
Switzerland 8
Finland 6
Netherlands 3
Denmarks 3
Spain 3
Malaysia 2
Canada 2
China 2
Czechoslovakia 1
Hungary 1
Sri Lanka 1
Israel 1
Norway 1
Brazil 1

USA, Germany and Japan have been the major players, filing most of the convention applications, followed by France, Australia, Great Britain, Korea and  Sweden.

Filing by Indian Companies/Institutes

Total number of applications filed by Indian companies and R&D institutions is 185. Individuals have contributed major part in the Indian filings. Indian companies and institutions filing 2 or more applications are listed in Table III.

Table III


No of Applications

BHEL                                                             18
Larsen & Toubro Ltd                                        15
CSIR                                                               9
Datar Switchgear Ltd                                         8
Electrex (India) Ltd                                            6
IIT                                                                    6
Crompton Greaves Ltd                                       5
Indian Institute of Science                                  5
SPIC Science Foundation                                  5
Exide Industries Ltd                                          4
ISRO                                                               4

Phoenix Lamps India Ltd                                  4

Department of Atomic Energy                            3
Gem energy Industry Ltd                                   3

Texas Instruments India Ltd                              3

AMCO Batteries Ltd                                          2
Birla Institute of Technology                               2
Boam R&D Co Ltd                                           2
Kirloskar electric Co Ltd                                   2
Lucas TVS Ltd                                                 2
M K Electric (India) Crescendo                           2
Orient Fans                                                      2
DRDO                                                              2
DST                                                                 2
Silicon Automation Systems Ltd                        2
Indian Nippon electricals Ltd                              2


BHEL’s 18 applications mainly relate to circuit breakers, high voltage high energy generator devices, gas insulated hybrid transformers, induction motors, solid oxide fuel cells, inverters for snubberless  operation and couplers for monitoring of electrical discharge. Most of the applications by Larsen and Toubro Ltd are for circuit breakers. These include design of secondary isolating contacts in circuit breakers, way to secure arc chutes in circuit- breakers, design of combination housings for circuit breaks, design of under voltage release for circuit breakers. CSIR has applications for improved super capacitor, lithium cells, batteries, uninterrupted safe power supply for use in hazardous areas, electrolytic cells and solid state pH meters.

Datar Switchgear Ltd also has applications for circuit breakers which include electromechanical combination of earth leakage circuit breakers and miniature circuit breaker, combination of circuit breaker with higher capacity, miniature circuit breaker with trip-on-fault position, permanent magnet relay and earth leakage circuit breaker. Electrex (India) Ltd has filed applications for compact electric portable planer, brushless alternator with shiftless rotor, heavy duty drill, compact marble cutter, heavy duty impact drill and electric and portable orbital sander. Crompoton Greaves has applications for centrifugal pump of   fractional horse power, inexpensive transformer power conversion system, electric ceiling fan suspension shackle and motor having improving controller. Indian Institute of Science has applications for invertors and switched mode power supplies. Exide Industries Ltd has applications for lead acid battery, leak resistant automotive battery, vented type leak resistant motor cycle battery and leak retardant automotive battery. Orient Fans has 2 applications for stator and a speed regulator for use with an electrical load. Phoenix Lamps India Ltd has patent applications for incandescent electric lamp assembly. SPIC Science Foundation has applications for fuel cells and porous electrodes for use in electrochemical cells.

Filing by Indian Individuals

Table IV gives the list of individuals who have filed 2 or more applications.

Table IV


No. of  Applications

Bhanu Prakash Vishwakarma 9
Lingaraj Patnaik             6
Majoj Hansraj 4
R.A. Patel         4
Chitaranjan Mukherjee        3
E.V. Thooran   3
J.S. Nirody       3
K.A. Zalavadia 3
Nathan Santhivel          3
R.A. Dhariwal Kunjithapatham and et al 2
A P Sunitha      2
Anne Vijaya      2
Arulandasamy Joseph             2
Baddam Anantha Reddy         2
D. Vijayagopal Reddy 2
D.B. Chavan    2
Dr. Jose           2
Dr. Ramchandran 2
G.S. Narayan   2
G.P. Ganesh   2
Kulwant Rai     2
M.C. Gupta       2
M.C. Dwivedi   2
V T Sheth         2
Mysore Krishnamurthy 2
Mysore Seshadri          2
P.M. Dixit          2
Purna Bahadur     2
R.V. Khopkar   2
Sanjeev Khosla and et al 2
Amitabh Roy    2
Sushant Gupta    2
V.K. Sharma    2
Vinod Chintamani      2



Individuals have filed applications in a variety of areas in the field of electricals. These include safe earth electrode, domestic power controller, electric cycle rickshaw, generation of electric current using ferro electrics, electrostatic current generator, electro dynamic power unit, device for sterilizing water by electrical means, air pressure machine to produce energy from gravity within increased atmospheric pressure, electrical switch with multi-operating facility, wind energy converter, battery operated tri-color torch and many more.

Filing by Foreign Companies

Foreign companies filing 10 or more than 10 applications have been listed in Table V.

Table V


No of Applications

Siemens Aktiengesellschaft 140
Asea Brown Boveri                94
General Electric Co 77
Schneider Electric Industries SA     53
Honda Giken Kabushiki Kaisha                          49
Matsushita Electric Industrial Co Ltd                                          48
Eaton Corp         36
Patent-Treuhand-Gesellschaft         Fur Elektrische Gluehlampen MBH 35
Eveready Battery Co                      30
Duracell Inc        23
Hitachi Ltd          22
Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha                          20
Alstom               19
Sony Corp         19
Kabushiki Kaisha                          17
Samsung Display Devices Co Ltd  17
GEC Alstom       15
Molex Inc           14
Westinghouse Electric Corp      14
Emersom Electric Co 13
Koninklijke Philips Electronics 13
Philips Electronics NV 13
Robert Bosch GMBH                13
Sanyo Electric Co Ltd 12
ABB                   10
Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson 10



Siemens Aktiengesellschaft has filed  applications in the areas of switched mode mains power supply unit, circuit breakers, electromagnet relays, gas turbine plant, steam power plant, actuators, switching arrangement for voltage polarity, converter systems, encapsulated installation, mains power supply unit, discharge apparatus and others. Asea Brown Boveri has applications for switchgears, transformers, convertor circuit, hydro-generator plant, synchronous compensator plant, rotating electric machine, electrical switching device, magnetic energy  storage, traction motor and drive system, power induction device, wind power plant, protection devices, switching devices, gas-cooled electric machine, rotating electrical machine parts, power circuit breakers, over voltage suppressor and short-circuit resistant IGET module. General Electric Company has applications for relays, discharge lamps, transformers, electronic electricity meter, stator bonding nib, electrical terminal arrangement induction motors, stators, rotors, electric motors, RF body coil, batteries and others.   Schneider Electric Industries SA has applications related to ball actuator, switchgears, protection devices, electromagnetic switching module, circuit breakers and power supplies.  Honda Giken Kabushiki Kaisha has applications for battery charging apparatus, brushless motor, magnetic driving pump, electric motor driven vehicle, vehicle light bulb, engine-operated generator, battery rental apparatus, engine generated unit, turn signal for motor vehicle and power unit for motor cycle.  International Fuel Cells LLC has filed applications in the area of fuel cells alone.  Other companies have also filed few applications in this area.

Table VI shows the area-wise distribution of the applications filed.

Table VI


No. of Applications

Motors           136
Battery           131
Lamps          130
Circuit breakers                       101
Generators     82
Protection Mechanism    59
Transformer   57
Insulation        57
Transmission Lines               44
Meters             39
Switchgear     36
Connectors    34
Fuel cells        28
Relays             21
Fans                18
Installation      18
Ballasts              7

Areas like motors, batteries, lamps, transformers, switchgears have been dealt with by many companies and individuals.  Then ballasts, regulators, installation devices, fans, fuel cells, meters have been specific to few companies.

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